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Here you’ll find some interesting abstracts about research in homoeopathy, often taken from PubMed but also from other resources:
(The abstracts posted just reflect the topics  - Pro and Con - that are currently under discussion, not my personal point of view. ).

Newest update: March, 2010

Int J Oncol. 2010 Feb;36(2):395-403.
Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells.
Frenkel M, Mishra BM, Sen S, Yang P, Pawlus A, Vence L, Leblanc A, Cohen L, Banerji P, Banerji P.
Integrative Medicine Program-Unit 145, Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4009, USA. frenkelm@netvision.net.il

The use of ultra-diluted natural products in the management of disease and treatment of cancer has generated a lot of interest and controversy. We conducted an in vitro study to determine if products prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. We studied four ultra-diluted remedies (Carcinosin, Phytolacca, Conium and Thuja) against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). The remedies exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines, causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, including downregulation of phosphorylated Rb and upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, which were likely responsible for the cell cycle delay/arrest as well as induction of the apoptotic cascade that manifested in the activation of caspase 7 and cleavage of PARP in the treated cells. The findings demonstrate biological activity of these natural products when presented at ultra-diluted doses. Further in-depth studies with additional cell lines and animal models are warranted to explore the clinical applicability of these agents.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Oct;98(4):198-207.
Isopathic treatment effects of Arsenicum album 45x on wheat seedling growth--further reproduction trials.
Lahnstein L, Binder M, Thurneysen A, Frei-Erb M, Betti L, Peruzzi M, Heusser P, Baumgartner S.
Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND: Two experimental studies on wheat preintoxicated with Arsenic trioxide yielded a significant shoot growth increase after an isopathic application of Ars-alb 45x. One independent reproduction trial however, yielded an effect inversion: wheat shoot growth was significantly decreased after application of Ars-alb 45x. AIMS: In this study we investigated the role of three potential confounding factors on the experimental outcome: geographical location of the experiments, influence of the main experimenter, and seed sensitivity to Arsenic poisoning. Laboratory-internal reproducibility was assessed by meta-analysis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wheat poisoned with Arsenic trioxide was cultivated in vitro in either Ars-alb 45x, water 45x, or unpotentised water. Treatments were blinded and randomised. Shoot length was measured after 7 days. The stability of the experimental set-up was assessed by systematic negative control (SNC) experiments.
RESULTS: The SNC experiments did not yield significant differences between the three groups treated with unpotentised water. Thus the experimental set-up seemed to be stable. We did not observe any shoot growth increase after a treatment with Ars-alb 45x in any of the newly performed experiments. In contrast, the meta-analysis of all 17 experiments performed (including earlier experiments already published) yielded a statistically significant shoot growth decrease (-3.2%, p=0.017) with isopathic Ars-alb 45x treatment. This effect was quantitatively similar across all five series of experiments.
CONCLUSIONS: Ultramolecular Ars-alb 45x led to statistically significant specific effects in arsenic poisoned wheat when investigated by two independent working groups. Effect size and effect direction differ, however. The investigated factors (geographical location, experimenter, seed sensitivity to Arsenic poisoning) did not seem to be responsible for the effect inversion. Laboratory external reproducibility of basic research into homeopathic potentisation remains a difficult issue.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Oct;98(4):186-97.
Inhibition of basophil activation by histamine: a sensitive and reproducible model for the study of the biological activity of high dilutions.
Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P. CHU, Limoges 87042, France. jslaudy@wanadoo.fr

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of this series of experiments we were looking for a model based on the use of purified commercially available compounds based on a fully described and accepted pharmacological model to study of the biological effect of high dilutions. Negative feedback induced by histamine, a major pro-inflammatory mediator, on basophils and mast cells activation via an H2 receptor me these criteria. The simplest way of measuring basophil activation in the early 1980's was the human basophil activation test (HBDT).
OBJECTIVES: Our major goal was first to study the biological effect of centesimal histamine dilutions beyond the Avogadro limit, on the staining properties of human basophils activated by an allergen extract initially house dust mite, then an anti-IgE and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). Technical development over the 25 years of our work led us to replace the manual basophil counting by flow cytometry. The main advantages were automation and observer independence. Using this latter protocol our aim was to confirm the existence of this phenomenon and to check its specificity by testing, under the same conditions, inactive analogues of histamine and histamine antagonists. More recently, we developed an animal model (mouse basophils) to study the effect of histamine on histamine release.
METHODS AND RESULTS: For the HBDT model basophils were obtained by sedimentation of human blood taken on EDTA and stained with Alcian blue. Results were expressed in percentage activation. Histamine dilutions tested were freshly prepared in the lab by successive centesimal dilutions and vortexing. Water controls were prepared in the same way. For the flow cytometric protocol basophils were first labeled by an anti-IgE FITC (basophil marker) and an anti-CD63 (basophil activation marker). Results were expressed in percentage of CD63 positive basophils. Another flow cytometric protocol has been developed more recently, based on basophil labeling by anti-IgE FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and anti-CD203 PE (another human basophil activation marker). Results were expressed in mean fluorescence intensity of the CD203c positive population (MFI-CD203c) and an activation index calculated by an algorithm. For the mouse basophil model, histamine was measured spectrofluorimetrically. The main results obtained over 28 years of work was the demonstration of a reproducible inhibition of human basophil activation by high dilutions of histamine, the effect peaks in the range of 15-17CH. The effect was not significant when histamine was replaced by histidine (a histamine precursor) or cimetidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist) was added to the incubation medium. These results were confirmed by flow cytometry. Using the latter technique, we also showed that 4-Methyl histamine (H2 agonist) induced a similar effect, in contrast to 1-Methyl histamine, an inactive histamine metabolite. Using the mouse model, we showed that histamine high dilutions, in the same range of dilutions, inhibited histamine release.
CONCLUSIONS: Successively, using different models to study of human and murine basophil activation, we demonstrated that high dilutions of histamine, in the range of 15-17CH induce a reproducible biological effect. This phenomenon has been confirmed by a multi-center study using the HBDT model and by at least three independent laboratories by flow cytometry. The specificity of the observed effect was confirmed, versus the water controls at the same dilution level by the absence of biological activity of inactive compounds such as histidine and 1-Methyl histamine and by the reversibility of this effect in the presence of a histamine receptor H2 antagonist.

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Vet Rec. 2010 Feb 20;166(8):234-8.
Homeopathic prescribing for chronic conditions in equine veterinary practice in the UK.
Mathie RT, Baitson ES, Hansen L, Elliott MF, Hoare J. Faculty of Homeopathy, Hahnemann House, 29 Park Street West, Luton LU1 3BE.

Twelve Faculty of Homeopathy veterinarians recorded data systematically at 777 consecutive homeopathic appointments for horses over a period of 12 months. A spreadsheet enabled the recording of information, which included the date of appointment; horse and owner identity (anonymised); sex of horse; main medical problem treated; whether the condition was chronic or acute; whether the appointment was new or a follow-up; owner-assessed clinical outcome on a seven-point scale, ranging from -3 to +3, compared with the first appointment; homeopathic medicine(s) prescribed; and whether any conventional or other complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) was being used concurrently to treat the condition. Data from 289 horses comprised a total of 305 individual conditions identified as chronic in nature, of which 234 had a follow-up assessment. At the final appointment for chronic cases during the study period, 4.3 per cent were receiving conventional medication and 17.1 per cent were being given another CAM treatment in addition to homeopathy. The eight chronic conditions most frequently treated with homeopathy were: arthritis, headshaking, laminitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sweet itch, dermatitis, sarcoidosis and Cushing's syndrome.

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Int J Oncol. 2010 Feb;36(2):395-403.
Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells.
Frenkel M, Mishra BM, Sen S, Yang P, Pawlus A, Vence L, Leblanc A, Cohen L,Banerji P, Banerji P.
Integrative Medicine Program-Unit 145, Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4009, USA.
frenkelm@netvision.net.il

The use of ultra-diluted natural products in the management of disease and treatment of cancer has generated a lot of interest and controversy. We conducted an in vitro study to determine if products prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. We studied four ultra-diluted remedies (Carcinosin, Phytolacca, Conium and Thuja) against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). The remedies exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines, causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, including downregulation of phosphorylated Rb and upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, which were likely responsible for the cell cycle delay/arrest as well as induction of the apoptotic cascade that manifested in the activation of caspase 7 and cleavage of PARP in the treated cells. The findings demonstrate biological activity of these natural products when presented at ultra-diluted doses. Further in-depth studies with additional cell lines and animal models are warranted to explore the clinical
applicability of these agents.

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Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Oct;280(4):603-11. Epub 2009 Feb 20.
Homeopathic treatment of patients with dysmenorrhea: a prospective observational study with 2 years follow-up.
Witt CM, Lüdtke R, Willich SN. Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, 10098, Berlin, Germany. claudia.witt@charite.de

PURPOSE: Evaluating homeopathic treatment for dysmenorrhea.
METHODS: Prospective multicenter observational study in primary care, using standardized questionnaires to record for 2 years diseases, quality of life, medical history, consultations, all treatments, other health services use.
RESULTS: Fifty-seven physicians treated 128 women (age 32.4 +/- 7.5 years, mean +/- SD) and 11 girls (13.7 +/- 4.0). Women had dysmenorrhea for 11.6 +/- 9.0 (girls 3.1 +/- 1.5) years. Patients received 7.5 +/- 6.5 (5.9 +/- 3.7) homeopathic prescriptions. Diagnoses and complaints severity improved markedly [at 24 months, dysmenorrhea relieved by > 50% of baseline rating in 46.1% (59) of the women and 45.5% (5) of the girls] with large effect sizes (24 months: Cohen's d from 1.18 to 2.93). In addition, QoL improved (24 months: SF-36 physical component score: 0.25, mental component score 0.25, KINDL sum score 0.27). Conventional medication changed little and use of other health services decreased.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dysmenorrhea improved under homeopathic treatment. Controlled studies should investigate efficacy and effectiveness.

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Ann Oncol. 2009 Oct 25.
Characteristics of cancer patients using homeopathy compared with those in conventional care: a cross-sectional study.
Guethlin C, Walach H, Naumann J, Bartsch HH, Rostock M. Institute for General Practice, Johann-Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main.

BACKGROUND: There are only few studies on cancer patients who are treated in complementary and alternative medicine clinics and comparing them with patients in conventional care. We will present the comparison of characteristics of two patient cohorts: one was treated in a homeopathic cancer care clinic and one was treated in a conventional oncology care (CC) outpatient clinic.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six-hundred and forty-seven patients were included in this cross-sectional cohort study and had to fill in questionnaires [health-related quality of life (QoL) (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and expectancies toward treatment]. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. This study presents the comparison of both cohorts.
RESULTS: Patients in the homeopathy cohort are younger, better educated and more often employed than patients in the CC cohort. The most pronounced differences indicate longer disease histories and different diagnostic and clinical pretreatment variables. Despite the clinical differences, QoL as well as anxiety, depression and fatigue was similar in both the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Homeopathic treatment is sought by cancer patients at a different phase during the course of the disease, which has particular implications for research. However, expectancies toward the benefit of the treatment as well as QoL data are similar.

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Sep 14.
Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments.
Bellavite P, Magnani P, Zanolin E, Conforti A. Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico-Biomediche, Università di Verona, Piazza L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy. paolo.bellavite@univr.it.

Gelsemium sempervirens is used in homeopathy for treating patients with anxiety related symptoms, however there have been few experimental studies evaluating its pharmacological activity. We have investigated the effects of homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens on mice, using validated behavioral models. Centesimal (CH) dilutions/dynamizations of G. sempervirens, the reference drug diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo (solvent vehicle) were intraperitoneally delivered to groups of mice of CD1 strain during 8 days, then the effects were assessed by the Light-Dark (LD) choice test and by the Open-Field (OF) exploration test, in a fully blind manner. In the LD test, the mean time spent in the illuminated area by control and placebo-treated animals was 15.98%, for mice treated with diazepam it increased to 19.91% (P = 0.047), while with G. sempervirens 5 CH it was 18.11% (P = 0.341, non-significant). The number of transitions between the two compartments increased with diazepam from 6.19 to 9.64 (P < 0.001) but not with G. Sempervirens. In the OF test, G. sempervirens 5 CH significantly increased the time spent and the distance traveled in the central zone (P = 0.009 and P = 0.003, respectively), while diazepam had no effect on these OF test parameters. In a subsequent series of experiments, G. sempervirens 7 and 30 CH also significantly improved the behavioral responses of mice in the OF test (P < 0.01 for all tested variables). Neither dilutions of G. sempervirens affected the total distance traveled, indicating that the behavioral effect was not due to unspecific changes in locomotor activity. In conclusion, homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens influence the emotional responses of mice to novel environments, suggesting an improvement in exploratory behavior and a diminution of thigmotaxis or neophobia.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):160-4.
Effect of Mercurius solubilis on the bacteriological response in the alveolitis process in rats.
de Araújo FR, de Castro CM, Severo MS, Diniz Mde F, Viana MT, Evêncio LB. Federal University of Pernambuco, Microbiology Division, Laboratory of Immunopathology Keizo-Asami, UFPE, Brazil.
flavia_regina_@hotmail.com

 OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the bacteriological response in alveolitis in rats treated with the homeopathic medicine Merc solubilis (Merc sol.) 12 cH.
METHODS: The study was randomized and observer blind. The animals were anesthetized and the upper right incisor extracted resulting in alveolitis. Animals were randomly assigned to groups (n=18/group): Water control, Alcohol control and Merc sol. 12 cH. These groups were subsequently divided into 3 subgroups (n=6/subgroup): Early Euthanasia (EE), Mid Euthanasia (ME) and Late Euthanasia (LE), killed at the 6th, 15th and 21st days respectively. The perialveolar microbiota was collected by swab in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) for seeding and bacterioscopy. After seeding, the Petri dishes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h.
RESULTS: Quantitative and qualitative changes were observed in the perialveolar microbiota when the groups were compared. Water control and Alcohol control had the highest counts of pathogenic bacteria, the microbiotica of the Merc sol. group remained closer to normal.
CONCLUSIONS: Merc sol. 12 cH did not reduce bacterial growth, but the microbiotica remained within the parameters of normality, obtaining the best results at 21 days after treatment.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):154-9.
Immunomodulatory activity of Toxicodendron pubescens in experimental models.
Patil CR, Salunkhe PS, Gaushal MH, Gadekar AR, Agrawal AM, Surana SJ. R.C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Near Karwand Naka, Shirpur-425405, District Dhule, Maharashtra, India. pchandragouda@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: Toxicodendron pubescens is a botanical name of Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus tox). This plant is widely used in its homeopathically diluted form in the treatment of inflammatory and edematous conditions. In this study, various dilutions of Rhus tox including its crude form have been evaluated for their effects on immune response in the in vivo and in vitro experimental models.
METHODS: Rhus tox in the form of mother tincture, 6cH, 30cH, 200cH and 1000cH dilutions was tested through in vivo models including sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) induced cellular and humoral immune response in C57/BL6 mice. The effects of Rhus tox dilutions were also evaluated in vitro on the functions of human polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells such as phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans, chemotaxis, and reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye.
RESULTS: Rhus tox was found to intensify SRBCs induced antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity response in mice. Even higher dilutions such as 200cH and 1000cH were found to affect the immune response; however, the crude form, mother tincture, 6cH and 30cH dilutions revealed more potent effects than the 200cH and 1000cH dilutions. In in vitro assays, all the dilutions exerted stimulation of phagocytosis, candidacidal activity and chemotaxis of human PMN cells. The NBT dye reduction assay revealed that oxidative processes in the PMN cells are accelerated in the presence of Rhus tox. This study shows that Rhus tox possesses immunostimulatory activity in its crude form as well as in homeopathically diluted forms. These effects appeared to be concentration dependent as higher dilutions had less potent effects.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):137-41.
Homeopathic treatment of minor aphthous ulcer: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Mousavi F, Mojaver YN, Asadzadeh M, Mirzazadeh M. Department of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dental School, Tehran, Iran.

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to clinically determine the efficacy of individualised homeopathy in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous ulceration (MiRAU).
DESIGN & INTERVENTION: A randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of individualised homeopathy. One hundred patients with minor aphthous ulcer were treated with individualised homeopathic medicines or placebo and followed up for 6 days. Patients received two doses of individualised homeopathic medicines in the 6C potency as oral liquid at baseline and 12 h later. Pain intensity and ulcer size were recorded at baseline during and at the end of the trial (mornings of days 4 and 6).
RESULT: All 100 patients completed treatment. Between group differences for pain intensity and ulcer size were statistically significant at day 4 and at day 6 (P<0.05). No adverse effects were reported.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that homeopathic treatment is an effective and safe method in the treatment of MiRAU.

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J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 May;23(5):538-43. Epub 2009 Feb 2.
Homeopathic treatment of patients with psoriasis--a prospective observational study with 2 years follow-up. Witt CM, Lüdtke R, Willich SN. Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany. claudia.witt@charite.de
Design: Prospective multicentre observational study.
Objective: To evaluate details and effects of homeopathic treatment in patients with psoriasis in usual medical care.
Methods: Primary care patients were evaluated over 2 years using standardized questionnaires, recording diagnoses and complaints severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), medical history, consultations, all treatments, and use of other health services.
Results: Forty-five physicians treated 82 adults, 51.2% women, aged 41.6 +/- 12.2 (mean +/- SD) years. Patients had psoriasis for 14.7 +/- 11.9 years; 96.3% had been treated before. Initial case taking took 127 +/- 47 min. The 7.4 +/- 7.4 subsequent consultations (duration: 19.4 +/- 10.5 min) cumulated to 169.0 +/- 138.8 min. Patients received 6.0 +/- 4.9 homeopathic prescriptions. Diagnoses and complaints severity improved markedly with large effect sizes (Cohen's d= 1.02-2.09). In addition, QoL improved (SF-36 physical component score d = 0.26, mental component score d = 0.49), while conventional treatment and health service use were considerably reduced.
Conclusions: Under classical homeopathic treatment, patients with psoriasis improved in symptoms and QoL.

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Jul 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Modulation of Signal Proteins: A Plausible Mechanism to Explain How a Potentized Drug Secale Cor 30C Diluted beyond Avogadro's Limit Combats Skin Papilloma in Mice.
Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Bhattacharyya SS, Paul S, Dutta S, Boujedaini N, Belon P. Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal, India. khudabukhsh_48@rediffmail.com; prof_arkb@yahoo.co.in.

In homeopathy, ability of ultra-high diluted drugs at or above potency 12C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit) in ameliorating/curing various diseases is often questioned, particularly because the mechanism of action is not precisely known. We tested the hypothesis if suitable modulations of signal proteins could be one of the possible pathways of action of a highly diluted homeopathic drug, Secale cornutum 30C (diluted 10(60) times; Sec cor 30). It could successfully combat DMBA + croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice as evidenced by histological, cytogenetical, immunofluorescence, ELISA and immunoblot findings. Critical analysis of several signal proteins like AhR, PCNA, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, NF-kB and IL-6 and of pro-apoptotic proteins like cytochrome c, Bax, Bad, Apaf, caspase-3 and -9 revealed that Sec cor 30 suitably modulated their expression levels along with amelioration of skin papilloma. FACS data also suggested an increase of cell population at S and G2 phases and decrease in sub-G1 and G1 phages in carcinogen-treated drug-unfed mice, but these were found to be near normal in the Sec cor 30-fed mice. There was reduction in genotoxic and DNA damages in bone marrow cells of Sec Cor 30-fed mice, as revealed from cytogenetic and Comet assays. Changes in histological features of skin papilloma were noted. Immunofluorescence studies of AhR and PCNA also suggested reduced expression of these proteins in Sec cor 30-fed mice, thereby showing its anti-cancer potentials against skin papilloma. Furthermore, this study also supports the hypothesis that potentized homeopathic drugs act at gene regulatory level.

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Homeopathy. 2008 Oct;97(4):196-201.
A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy comparison of 3C trituration derived and 4C trituration derived remedies.
Botha I, Ross AH. Department of Homoeopathy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban University of Technology, South Africa. izelb@dut.ac.za

BACKGROUND: Trituration of base substances, commonly to the 3cH level, is the cornerstone of the homeopathic pharmaceutical process or insoluble solutions. Becker and Ehrler claim that trituration to 4cH gives a new, spiritual dimension to the homoeopathic medicine picture.
AIM AND METHOD: This study sought to establish whether the claim that C4-derived potencies possess different physicochemical qualities to the homoeopathic medicines derived from a 3cH trituration is valid. All potencies were produced by hand according to the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). Five different samples were analysed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy.
RESULTS: The results indicated a significant difference between the 12cH samples of potassium dichromate (Kalium bichromicum) produced from 3cH and 4cH triturations. This was especially prominent in the chemical shift values of all four peaks and the relative integration levels of the H(2)O, OH and CH(3) peaks when comparing two sample groups.
CONCLUSION: Trituration plays a part in the development of physicochemical properties specific to homoeopathic medicines. The higher the level of trituration, the more pronounced is the alteration of the physical structure of the active ingredient. The study concludes that 4cH potencies are physicochemically distinct from 3cH-derived potencies (as currently employed).

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Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD004845.
Homeopathic medicines for adverse effects of cancer treatments.
Kassab S, Cummings M, Berkovitz S, van Haselen R, Fisher P. Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital, 60 Great Ormond Street, London, UK, WC1N 3HR. sosie.kassab@uclh.nhs.uk

BACKGROUND: Homeopathic medicines are used by patients with cancer, often alongside conventional treatment. Cancer treatments can cause considerable morbidity and one of the reasons patients use homeopathic medicines is to help with adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate effectiveness and safety of homeopathic medicines used to prevent or treat adverse effects of cancer treatments.
SEARCH STRATEGY: The following were searched up to November 2008: Cochrane PaPaS Trials Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; BNI; CancerLIT; AMED; CISCOM; Hom-Inform; SIGLE; National Research Register; Zetoc; www.controlled-trials.com; http://clinicaltrials.gov; Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis (LMHI, Liga) conference proceedings; reference lists of relevant studies were checked; and homeopathic manufacturers, leading researchers and practitioners were contacted.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of homeopathic medicines in participants with a clinical or histological diagnosis of cancer where the intervention was aimed at preventing or treating symptoms associated with cancer treatments. All age groups, and all stages of disease were included.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and two review authors extracted data. Three review authors independently assessed trial quality using the Delphi List and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Where available, data were extracted for analysis.
MAIN RESULTS: Eight controlled trials (seven placebo controlled and one trial against an active treatment) with a total of 664 participants met the inclusion criteria. Three studied adverse effects of radiotherapy, three studied adverse effects of chemotherapy and two studied menopausal symptoms associated with breast cancer treatment.Two studies with low risk of bias demonstrated benefit: one with 254 participants demonstrated superiority of topical calendula over trolamine (a topical agent not containing corticosteroids) for prevention of radiotherapy-induced dermatitis, and another with 32 participants demonstrated superiority of Traumeel S (a proprietary complex homeopathic medicine) over placebo as a mouthwash for chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Two other studies reported positive results, although the risk of bias was unclear, and four further studies reported negative results.No serious adverse effects or interactions were reported attributable to the homeopathic medicines used.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found preliminary data in support of the efficacy of topical calendula for prophylaxis of acute dermatitis during radiotherapy and Traumeel S mouthwash in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. These trials need replicating. There is no convincing evidence for the efficacy of homeopathic medicines for other adverse effects of cancer treatments. Further research is required.

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ScientificWorldJournal. 2009 May 20;9:320-30.
Homeopathic treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with Pseudomonas syringae.
Shah-Rossi D, Heusser P, Baumgartner S. Society for Cancer Research, Hiscia Institute, Kirschweg 9, 4144 Arlesheim, Switzerland. shah@hiscia.ch

Homeopathic basic research is still in the screening phase to identify promising model systems that are adapted to the needs and peculiarities of homeopathic medicine and pharmacy. We investigated the potential of a common plant-pathogen system, Arabidopsis thaliana infected with the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae, regarding its response towards a homeopathic treatment. A. thaliana plants were treated with homeopathic preparations before and after infection. Outcome measure was the number of P. syringae bacteria in the leaves of A. thaliana, assessed in randomized and blinded experiments. After a screening of 30 homeopathic preparations, we investigated the effect of Carbo vegetabilis 30x, Magnesium phosphoricum 30x, Nosode 30x, Biplantol (a homeopathic complex remedy), and Biplantol 30x on the infection rate in five or six independent experiments in total. The screening yielded significant effects for four out of 30 tested preparations. In the repeated experimental series, only the homeopathic complex remedy Biplantol induced a significant reduction of the infection rate (p = 0.01; effect size, d = 0.38). None of the other four repeatedly tested preparations (Carbo vegetabilis 30x, Magnesium phosphoricum 30x, Nosode 30x, Biplantol 30x) yielded significant effects in the overall evaluation. This phytopathological model yielded a small to medium effect size and thus might be of interest for homeopathic basic research after further improvement. Compared to Bion (a common SAR inducer used as positive control), the magnitude of the treatment effect of Biplantol was about 50%. Thus, homeopathic formulations might have a potential for the treatment of plant diseases after further optimization. However, the ecological impact should be investigated more closely before widespread application.

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eCAM 2009 6(2):257-263; doi:10.1093/ecam/nem082
Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture
Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila, Ramadasan Kuttan, Korengath Chandran Preethi and Girija Kuttan
Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala–680 555, India

http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/6/2/257

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Homeopathy. 2009 Apr;98(2):114-21
Antidepressants, suicidality and rebound effect: evidence of similitude?
Teixeira MZ.
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. marcus@homeozulian.med.br

BACKGROUND: Samuel Hahnemann noticed that palliative treatments for the symptoms of chronic diseases, after an initial improvement, provoked symptoms similar but stronger symptoms to those initially suppressed. He regarded this as a consequence of the vital reaction of the organism: an automatic and instinctive capacity to return to the initial health condition altered by medicines. Using this homeostatic conception of the organism as a treatment rationale, Hahnemann proposed the therapy of similarity, administering to the patients medicines capable of causing, in healthy individuals, similar symptoms to the natural disease. Based on experimental observations, he proposed that the primary action of the drug was followed by the secondary and opposite action of the organism, inaugurating homeopathic pharmacology, and alerting to the harmful consequences of palliative medicines in susceptible individuals. Such iatrogenic events can be observed in contemporary medicine, after the withdrawal of modern enantiopathic medicines, according to the study of the rebound effect or paradoxical reaction of the organism.
METHOD: This study reviews the recent studies which describe suicidality after the suspension or discontinuation of second generation antidepressants according to the hypothesis of the paradoxical reaction of the organism.
CONCLUSIONS: Rebound and withdrawal effects, including suicidality occur with antidepressant drugs. They are relatively rare but more intense than the primary action of the drug. The probability of such effects is influenced by patient factors including age and diagnosis, and drug factors including half-life.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Apr;98(2):97-106
Homeopathy for the treatment of menstrual irregularities: a case series.
Cardigno P.
Homeopathic Clinical Research, Scientific Department FIAMO-Homeosynesis Medical Association, Colorno, Italy. ricerca.clinica@homeosynesis.com

OBJECTIVE: A preliminary study to evaluate the usefulness of homeopathic treatment in the care of menstrual irregularities.
METHOD: Patients were diagnosed at the first appointment according to menstrual cycle over the past year: Amenorrhea (AM), Oligo-amenorrhea (OL-AM), OL, Taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT). All patients were prescribed an individualised, global homeopathic treatment. The main outcomes were: time to resumption of periods, change of clinical diagnosis at the end of follow-up or after 2 years. The secondary outcomes were: menstrual regularity at the end of follow-up, compared to pre-treatment frequency; flow characteristics; clinical course of acute and chronic concomitant symptoms.
RESULTS: 18 consecutive cases of secondary amenorrhea (SA) and oligomenorrhea (OL) met the entry criteria. 8 women had SA, 2 were on HRT, 6 had OL-AM and 2 had OL. The average duration of considered follow-up was 21 months. The average time before the reappearance of menstruation was 58 days (s.d. 20) in the 8 women with SA at the time of the first appointment, for all cases 46 days (s.d. 42). Change of clinical diagnosis: 50% of women, who were diagnosed AM, recovered their ovulatory cycle (OV), whereas 12.5% remained amenorrheic; 33.3% of patients, who were initially OL-AM, showed an OV; 100% of oligomenorrheic and HRT patients recovered an OV. The average frequency of spontaneous cycles per year changes from 4.32 (s.d. 1.97) pre-treatment to 9.6 cycles per year at the end (s.d. 2.92). Four detailed case histories are reported.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Apr;98(2):92-6
Homeopathic treatment for bone regeneration: experimental study.
Almeida JD, Arisawa EA, Balducci I, da Rocha RF, Carvalho YR.
Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, São Paulo State University-UNESP, São José dos Campos Dental School, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil. janete@fosjc.unesp.br

AIM AND METHOD: The objective of this research was to study the effect of homeopathic treatment with Plumbum metallicum (Plumbum met.) on mandibular bone repair in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the mandibles of 60 male rats, approximately 3-month-old, randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each: control, treated with calcitonin, and treated with a homeopathic medicine. A circumscribed bone defect measuring 4mm in diameter was made in the mandible and covered with a polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) barrier. The group treated with calcitonin received 2IU/kg intramuscularly three times a week; the group treated with Plumbum met. 30c received three drops in water every day. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The mandibles were removed and submitted to histologic and histomorphometric analyses.
RESULTS: Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and by the Tukey test. The interaction effect (ANOVA, F df(6; 48)=4.64; p=0.001<0.05) indicated that the relationship between treatments was not the same at each time of sacrifice. Although statistical analysis of the histomorphometric data showed a similar results for the treated and control groups. But histological analysis showed complete filling of the surgical defect throughout its extent was only for the group treated with Plumbum met.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that for repair of surgical defects in rat mandibles Plumbum met. 30c and control did not differ significantly in histomorphometric terms.

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Homeopathy. 2009 Apr;98(2):88-91
Dual effect of Toxicodendron pubescens on Carrageenan induced paw edema in rats.
Patil CR, Gadekar AR, Patel PN, Rambhade A, Surana SJ, Gaushal MH.
R.C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Near Karvand Naka, Shirpur, Dhule, Maharashtra, India. pchandragouda@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: Toxicodendron pubescens is the current botanical name of homeopathic Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus tox). Rhus tox drug is widely used in homeopathically diluted form in the treatment of inflammatory and edematous conditions. We studied the effect of crude form of this plant, after single and multiple doses in Carrageenan induced paw inflammation in rats.
METHOD: We evaluated effects of single dose and multiple doses of orally administered Rhus tox on Carrageenan induced paw inflammation in rats. We tested 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses of Rhus tox. In the single dose study, Rhus tox was administered 1 h prior to the subplantar injection of Carrageenan. In the multiple dose study, Rhus tox was administered twice daily for three days and Carrageenan was injected 1 h after the last dose. Paw volume was measured using a digital plethysmometer.
RESULTS: Administration of a single dose of Rhus tox 1h prior to injection of Carrageenan significantly reduced the paw inflammation in a dose dependent manner. Administration of multiple doses of Rhus tox increased the intensity of inflammation induced by Carrageenan, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Rhus tox, in crude form, exerts anti-inflammatory effects after a single dose and proinflammatory effect after multiple doses in Carrageenan induced paw inflammation in rats. Further study is needed to explain this dual effect.

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Patient Educ Couns. 2009 Jan;74(1):91-6.
How do parents of child patients compare consultations with homeopaths and physicians? A qualitative study.
Rise MB, Steinsbekk A.
Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

OBJECTIVE: How do parents of child patients experience and compare consultations with homeopaths and physicians, and how do they describe an ideal consultation.
METHODS: A qualitative study with interviews of parents to 16 children who had consulted both a homeopaths and a physicians.
RESULTS: Comparing consultations with physicians and homeopaths, the parents experienced the homeopathic consultations to a greater extent to have a whole person approach, also described as a core factor in an ideal consultation. This approach included exhaustive questioning, longer consultations, more interaction with the child and looking for the underlying cause.
CONCLUSION: The parents in this study perceived that the homeopathic consultation had a whole person approach while consultations with most physicians focused on the symptoms. The homeopathic consultation was said to be more in line with what the parents perceived to be an ideal consultation for their children than consultation with physicians.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Treatment philosophy and the aim of the consultation are likely to play a larger part than the technical aspects in determining the form and content of a consultation. Training in communication could benefit from including discussions on how the practitioner's treatment philosophy influences the consultation behavior.

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Vet Rec. 2009 Mar 21;164(12):364-70.
Pilot study of the effect of individualised homeopathy on the pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis in dogs.
Hill PB, Hoare J, Lau-Gillard P, Rybnicek J, Mathie RT.
Division of Companion Animal Studies, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, North Somerset BS40 5DU.

Twenty dogs with confirmed atopic dermatitis were treated with homeopathy. In the first phase of this pilot study, all of the dogs were treated by a veterinary homeopath with individualised remedies prescribed on the basis of the dog's cutaneous signs and constitutional characteristics. The response to treatment was assessed by scoring the severity of pruritus from 0 to 10 on a validated scale. The dogs were evaluated at monthly intervals for at least two months. In 15 cases, the owners reported no improvement following homeopathic treatment. In the other five cases, the owners believed that the homeopathic treatment was associated with a substantial improvement, and reported reductions in pruritus scores ranging from 64 to 100 per cent. These five dogs were selected for the second phase of the study, in which homeopathic remedies were tested against placebos in a randomised and blinded trial. In one of these dogs, atopic dermatitis resolved completely and so this dog could not participate in phase 2; another dog was euthanased because of status epilepticus before phase 2 could be started. In the remaining three cases, the owners correctly distinguished between the placebo and homeopathic remedies, and reported reductions in the pruritus score of 0, 0.2 and 0.8 following placebo treatment and 4.3, 2.4 and 3.0, respectively, following the remedy.

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Complement Ther Med. 2009 Apr;17(2):63-70. Epub 2009 Jan 7
Effects of potentised substances on growth rate of the water plant Lemna gibba L.
Scherr C, Simon M, Spranger J, Baumgartner S.
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse, Frick, Switzerland. scherr@vfk.ch

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated, whether the growth rate of Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) can be influenced by the application of homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid, kinetin, argentum nitricum, and lemna minor.
METHODS: Duckweed was grown in either potencies (14x-30x, decimal steps) or water controls (unsuccussed and succussed) over seven days. Frond (leaf-like structure) growth was measured using a non-destructive image analysis system. Growth rates were calculated for three time intervals (0-7, 0-3, 3-7 days). Five to six independent, randomized and blinded experiments were analysed for each of the four tested substances. Water control experiments were performed repeatedly to test the reliability of the experimental set-up (systematic negative controls).
RESULTS: The systematic negative control experiments did not yield any significant effects. Hence, false positive results could be excluded. The test system had a low coefficient of variation (1.5%). Out of the four tested substances gibberellic acid had the most pronounced effect (p=0.0002, F-test) on the main outcome parameter frond growth rate (r(area) day 0-7). Potency levels 15x, 17x, 18x, 23x and 24x reduced growth rate of Lemna gibba (p<0.05 against the pooled water control, LSD test).
CONCLUSIONS: Lemna gibba may be considered as a suitable test organism for further studies on the efficacy of homeopathic potencies. Evidence accumulates, that adjacent potency levels may strongly differ in their biological activity. Potential consequences for therapeutical application might be worth investigating.

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Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009 Feb 23
Paediatric homoeopathy in Germany: results of the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS).
Du Y, Knopf H.

Link to Abstract

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BMC Public Health. 2008 Dec 17;8(1):413 [Epub ahead of print]
How healthy are chronically ill patients after eight years of homeopathic treatment? - Results from a long term observational study.
Witt CM, Ludtke R, Mengler N, Willich SN.

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is a highly debated but often used medical treatment. With this cohort we aimed to evaluate health status changes under homeopathic treatment in routine care. Here we extend former results, now presenting data of an 8-year follow-up.
METHODS: In a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 103 homeopathic primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data from all patients (age >1 year) consulting the physician for the first time were observed. The main outcome measures were: The patients' perceived change in complaint severity (numeric rating scales from 0= no complaint to 10= maximal severity) and quality of life as measured by the SF-36 at baseline, and after 2 and 8 years.
RESULTS: A total of 3,709 patients were studied, 73% (2,722 adults, 72.8% female, age at baseline 41.0+/-12.3; 819 children, 48.4% female, age 6.5+/-4.0) contributed data to the 8-year follow-up. The most frequent diagnoses were allergic rhinitis and headache in adults, and atopic dermatitis and multiple recurrent infections in children. Disease severity decreased significantly (p<0.001) between baseline, 2 and 8 years (adults from 6.2+/-1.7 to 2.9+/-2.2 and 2.7+/-2.1; children from 6.1+/-1.8 to 2.1+/-2.0 and 1.7+/-1.9). Physical and mental quality of life sores also increased considerably. Younger age, female gender and more severe disease at baseline were factors predictive of better therapeutic success.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who seek homeopathic treatment are likely to improve considerably. These effects maintain for as long as 8 years.

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J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jul;22(5):543-52. 
Homeopathic pathogenetic trials produce more specific than non-specific symptoms: results from two double-blind placebo controlled trials.
Walach H, Mollinger H, Sherr J, Schneider R.
School of Social Sciences and European Office of the Samueli Institute for Information Biology, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK. harald.walach@northampton.ac.uk

We conducted two parallel, blinded homeopathic pathogenetic trials conducted at two different sites to determine whether symptoms reported by healthy volunteers were significantly different for homeopathic remedies than for placebos. Study 1 used a two-armed design, testing ozone against placebo. Study 2 used a three-armed design, testing ozone and iridium against placebo. We found significantly more remedy-specific symptoms in provers taking ozone or iridium than in provers taking placebo in the three-armed trial and in both trials pooled for ozone and placebo. We, therefore, conclude that homeopathic remedies produce more symptoms typical for a remedy than non-typical symptoms. The results furthermore suggest a somewhat non-classical pattern because symptoms of one remedy appear to be mimicked in the other trial arm. This might be indicative of entanglement in homeopathic systems.

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Forsch Komplementmed. 2008;15(4):211-217. Epub 2008 Aug 15. 
A Homoeopathic Proving of Galphimia glauca.
Teut M, Dahler J, Schnegg C.
Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charite University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Homoeopathic provings are a fundamental concept in homoeopathy. The aim of this study was to record the symptoms produced by a homoeopathic drug compared to placebo.
Methods: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1-week baseline, 4-week proving, and 2-week post-observational period. Subjects: 15 healthy physicians and medical students volunteered as provers; 11 were randomised to verum and 4 to placebo. Proving substance: Galphimia glauca C12 compared to placebo; maximum intake of 5 days. Outcome measures: Proving symptoms according to ICCH definition and the number of proving symptoms. The proving symptoms were analysed qualitatively using the Boenninghausen method.
Results: A total of 682 symptoms were observed in both groups. Galphimia glauca provers experienced states of exhaustion, weakness, lack of concentration, feelings of confusion, dryness of mouth, lacrimation, and burning sensation in the eyes. Two provers experienced an amelioration of their allergic rhinitis. Proving symptoms were completely reversible. The statistical analysis showed more ICCH proving symptoms for placebo (mean 72.3 +/- SD 37.3) than for Galphimia (35 +/- 24.2), but the group difference was not significant (95% confidence interval, -78 to 1, p = 0.097).
Discussion: Although statistical analysis showed no significant group differences, we observed specific symptoms under Galphimia glauca that correspond to those seen in clinical studies of phytotherapeutic preparations, including relaxing, sedative, anxiolytic, and anti-allergic effects. Conclusion: Our results confirm the toxicological and clinical effects of Galphimia glauca compared to placebo, but the ICCH criteria for proving symptoms were not suitable to distinguish between specific and unspecific symptoms.
Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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Oncol Rep. 2008 Jul;20(1):69-74. 
Cancer patients treated with the Banerji protocols utilising homoeopathic medicine: a Best Case Series Program of the National Cancer Institute USA.
Banerji P, Campbell DR, Banerji P.
PBH Research Foundation, Kolkata 700020, West Bengal, India. pbhrfindia@dataone.in

Although many studies have been conducted on the role of alternative medicine in the treatment of cancer, only a few reports have been published regarding the total regression of malignant tumors. At the PBH Research Foundation (PBHRF), two of the authors have used homoeopathic therapy to treat many patients with various malignant tumors. The objective of the present study was to have their treatment procedures evaluated and validated by the United States (US) National Cancer Institute (NCI) Best Case Series (BCS) Program. Lung and oesophageal carcinoma patients were treated with homoeopathic remedies at the PBHRF according to Banerji's protocol until there was complete regression of the tumors. Case records including pathology and radiology reports for 14 patients were submitted for review by the US NCI BCS Program. Four of these cases had an independent confirmation of the diagnosis and radiographic response and were accepted as sufficient information for the NCI to initiate further investigation. These four cases are presented in detail in this report along with follow-up and outcome information. This study describes the process and outcome of a selected case series review through the NCI BCS Program. The results of the review were deemed to be sufficient to warrant NCI-initiated prospective research follow-up in the form of an observational study.

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Homeopathy. 2008 Jul;97(3):145-51
Effect of homeopathic medicines on helminth parasitism and resistance of Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.
Zacharias F, Guimaraes JE, Araujo RR, Almeida MA, Ayres MC, Bavia ME, Mendonca-Lima FW.
Empresa Baiana de Desenvolvimento Agricola S/A, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

This study evaluated the effects of homeopathic treatment on control of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep. Twenty lambs were randomized to three treatments: treated with the homeopathic medicines, Ferrum phosphoricum, Arsenicum album and Calcarea carbonica; treated with a conventional antihelminthic, doramectin, and an untreated control group. Fecal and blood samples were taken from each animal on days 18, 38 and 68 after start of treatment. A significant reduction in number of H. contortus larvae (p<0.01) was observed for animals in the homeopathic treatment group compared to the control group. Fecal egg counts showed negative correlation between haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in the homeopathic treatment group (p<0.01); however, the biochemical and immunological parameters showed better correlation, indicating that the homeopathic medicine improved vital functions. Daily weight gain in the homeopathic treatment group was superior to the control and to the antihelminthic groups, 31 and 6.5%, respectively. The cost benefit analysis confirmed that homeopathy group increases economic trend when compared with the other groups.

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Homeopathy. 2008 Jul;97(3):141-4
An animal model for the study of Chamomilla in stress and depression: pilot study.
Pinto SA, Bohland E, Coelho Cde P, Morgulis MS, Bonamin LV.
Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazilian Institute for Homeopathic Studies (FACIS-IBEHE), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The behavioral and hematological effects of treatment with Chamomilla 6cH in mice subjected to experimental stress are described. Swiss mice were randomly divided into pairs, one animal was inoculated with Ehrlich's tumor, the other was treated daily with Chamomilla 6cH or control or received no treatment. After 7 days, the animals were observed in an open-field arena and blood samples taken. Mice who cohabitated with a sick cage-mate showed a decrease in their general activity, but those treated with Chamomilla 6cH were less severely affected (p=0.0426). No hematological changes were observed. In a second experiment, the forced swimming test was applied to mice pre-treated with Chamomilla 6cH, controls were: water, 10% ethanol or amitriptyline. Only the amitriptyline and ethanol treated groups showed significant excitatory behavior (p=0.0020), Chamomilla 6cH treated animals' scores intermediate between water control and ethanol or amitriptyline. A decrease in the leukocyte count was observed in the amitriptyline and Chamomilla 6cH treated groups (p=0.039). These data suggest that treatment with Chamomilla 6cH is related to the recovery of basal behavioral conditions in mice subjected to stressful conditions.

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Homeopathy. 2008 Jul;97(3):134-40
Delayed luminescence of high homeopathic potencies on sugar globuli.
Lenger K, Bajpai RP, Drexel M.
Naturheilpraxis, Kaiserstrasse 28, D-63065 Offenbach, Germany. dr.karin.lenger@t-online.de

Delayed luminescence signals of Arg.met. CMf (100Mf), Canth. CMf, Bov. CMf absorbed onto sugar globuli was observed by exciting them at their known resonance frequency of 2.060 MHz. Arn. CMf also showed delayed luminescence when excited at 2.060 MHz and at 1.828 MHz. Alc. LMK (50MK) could not be excited by 2.060 MHz and showed properties of control globuli. Canth. LMK could not be excited at 2.006 MHz. The delayed luminescence signals were characterized by the coefficient B(2) typical of the delayed luminescence of non-living complex systems, and by the coefficient B(0) typical of living systems. Both coefficients can be considered as indicative of holistic quantum structures in homeopathic potencies.

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Complement Ther Med. 2008 Feb;16(1):15-21. Epub 2006 Dec 27
Homoeopathic versus conventional treatment of children with eczema: a comparative cohort study.
Keil T, Witt CM, Roll S, Vance W, Weber K, Wegscheider K, Willich SN.
Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charite University Medical Center Berlin, D-10098 Berlin, Germany. thomas.keil@charite.de

OBJECTIVES: To assess, over a period of 12 months, whether homoeopathic treatment could influence eczema signs/symptoms and quality of life (QoL) compared with conventional treatment. DESIGN: Prospective multi-centre cohort study. SETTING: Children with eczema aged 1-16 years were recruited from primary care practices. INTERVENTIONS: Conventional versus homoeopathic treatment.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients (or parents) assessed eczema symptoms by numerical rating scales as well as disease-specific Atopie Lebensqualitaets-Fragebogen (ALF) and general quality of life (KINDL, KITA) at 0, 6 and 12 months.
RESULTS: A total of 118 children were included: 54 from homoeopathic (mean age+/-S.D. was 5.1+/-3.3 years; 56% boys) and 64 from conventional practices (6.2+/-3.8 years; 61% boys). Eczema symptoms (assessed by patients or their parents) improved from 0 to 12 months for both treatment options, but did not differ between the two groups: 3.5-2.5 versus 3.4-2.1; p=0.447 (adjusted). Disease-related quality of life improved in both groups similarly. In the subgroup of children aged 8-16 years the general quality of life showed a better trend for conventional treatment compared with homoeopathic treatment (p=0.030).
CONCLUSIONS: This observational study is the first long-term prospective investigation to compare homoeopathic and conventional treatment of eczema in children. Over a period of 12 months, both therapy groups improved similarly regarding perception of eczema symptoms (assessed by patients or parents) and disease-related quality of life.

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Homeopathy. 2008 Apr;97(2):65-9. 
Effects of homeopathy in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.
de Almeida LR, Campos MC, Herrera HM, Bonamin LV, da Fonseca AH.
Department of Animal Parasitology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. rodrigues_lu@yahoo.fr

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of homeopathic treatment on mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.
METHODS: Eighty adult male C57BL/6 inbred mice were randomly allocated to five groups treated with biotherapy (nosode) of T. cruzi 12dH (12x) pre- and post-infection; Phosphorus 12dH post-infection; infected control treated with control solution and uninfected control. The biotherapy was prepared by the Costa method from the blood of mice experimentally infected with the Y strain of T. cruzi. Phosphorus was used because of its clinical and reportorial similarity to Chagas disease. T. cruzi (10(4)) sanguineous forms were inoculated intraperitoneally per animal. Parasitaemia was monitored, leukocyte and serological responses were evaluated at 0, 7, 14 and 42 days after infection. The prepatent and patent periods of parasitaemia, maximum of parasitaemia, day of maximum parasitaemia and mortality rates were compared between groups.
RESULTS: A significantly shorter period of patent parasitaemia was observed in the group treated with the biotherapy before infection (p<0.05) than in the other groups. This group also had the lowest parasitaemias values at 9, 13, 15 (p<0.05), 17 (p<0.05), 22, 24 and 28 days, a lower rate of mortality and a significant increase of lymphocytes compared to the infected control group. The Phosphorus group had the longest period of patent parasitaemia, higher maximum parasitaemia, and a significant reduction of lymphocyte numbers, but no mortality. The infected control group had the highest mortality rate (not statistically significant), and the highest IgG titres at 42 days post-infection (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that pre-treatment with biotherapy modulates host immune response to T. cruzi, mainly during the acute phase of the infection. Phosphorus shows an action on the pathogenicity by T. cruzi infection. Homeopathic treatment of T. cruzi infection should be further investigated.

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Altern Complement Med. 2007 Nov;13(9):931-7
Duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) as a test organism for homeopathic potencies.
Scherr C, Simon M, Spranger J, Baumgartner S.
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Frick, Switzerland. scherr@vfk.ch

OBJECTIVES: A bioassay with duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) was used to study the effects of homeopathic potencies on the plant's growth rate. Screening included 12 substances: argentum nitricum, copper sulfate, gibberellic acid, 3-indole acetic acid, kinetin, lactose, lemna minor, methyl jasmonate, metoxuron, phosphorus, potassium nitrate, and sulfur. Each substance was tested in the potency range 14x-30x. Controls were unsuccussed and succussed water.
DESIGN: In randomized and blinded experiments, duckweed was grown in either potentized substances or water controls over 7 days. Frond (leaf) growth was measured regularly with a computerized image analysis system and growth rates were calculated for different time intervals (day 0-7, 0-3, 3-7). Additionally, a water control run with unsuccussed water as the only test substance was performed to determine the variability of the bioassay.
RESULTS: For the water control run, the between-group coefficient of variance for groups of five replicates was 0.87% for the frond area-related average specific growth rate r(area) compared to 1.60% for the frond number-related average specific growth rate r(num). Thus, the former is the preferred parameter to be used. Of twelve tested substances, potentized argentum nitricum, phosphorus, and kinetin significantly (p<0.05, analysis of variance F-test) affected the main parameter: frond area-related average specific growth rate (day 0-7). Segmented area growth rates (day 0-3 or 3-7) were affected by potentized argentum nitricum, gibberellic acid, lactose, and phosphorus.
CONCLUSIONS: The described experimental set-up with L. gibba as test organism appears to be a promising new model system to investigate effects of potentized substances. Yet larger sets of replication experiments with selected test substances and systematic negative controls are necessary to verify the effects found.

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Homeopathy. 2008 Jan;97(1):10-5.
Treating hot flushes in menopausal women with homeopathic treatment--results of an observational study.
Bordet MF, Colas A, Marijnen P, Masson J, Trichard M.
Boiron, Sainte-Foy-les-Lyon, France.

OBJECTIVE: There is great controversy concerning treatment for menopausal symptoms. We evaluated homeopathic treatments for hot flushes and their effect on quality of life in menopausal women.
METHODS: Open, multi-national prospective, pragmatic and non-comparative observational study of homeopathic treatments prescribed and their effectiveness, observing their impact on quality of life.
RESULTS: Ninety-nine physicians in 8 countries took part in this study and included 438 patients with an average age of 55. Homeopathic medicines were prescribed to all patients; 98% of the prescription lines were for homeopathic medicines. Lachesis mutus, Belladonna, Sepia officinalis, Sulphur and Sanguinaria canadensis were the most prescribed. A non-homeopathic treatment and/or food supplement prescribed for 5% of the patients. This observational study revealed a significant reduction (p<0.001) in the frequency of hot flushes by day and night and a significant reduction in the daily discomfort they caused (mean fall of 3.6 and 3.8 points respectively, on a 10cm visual analogue scale; p<0.001). Ninety percent of the women reported disappearance or lessening of their symptoms, these changes mostly taking place within 15 days of starting homeopathic treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this observational study suggest that homeopathic treatment for hot flushes in menopausal women is effective. Further studies including randomized controlled trials should be conducted.

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Homeopathy. 2008 Jan;97(1):3-9. 
The effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxine on highland frogs: influence of electromagnetic fields.
Weber S, Endler PC, Welles SU, Suanjak-Traidl E, Scherer-Pongratz W, Frass M, Spranger H, Peithner G, Lothaller H.
Interuniversity College Graz/Castle of Seggau, Austria.

BACKGROUND: Previous experiments show that amphibian larvae are responsive to homeopathically prepared thyroxine.
METHODS: We studied the effect of a highly diluted and agitated thyroxine solution exposed to various electromagnetic fields on metamorphosis in highland Rana temporaria. The devices tested were: microwave oven, mobile phone, airport X-ray, and a red light barcode scanner. Animals were treated either with homeopathically prepared thyroxine (10(-30) parts by weight, 10(-35) in the water in which the animals were kept), or analogously prepared blank solution, or analogously prepared thyroxine exposed to the electromagnetic field of one of the devices tested. Solutions were administered at 48h intervals according to a standardized protocol.
RESULTS: Animals treated with the standard test solution thyroxine 10(-30) metamorphosed more slowly than the control animals, ie the effect of the homeopathically prepared thyroxine was opposed to the usual physiological effect of molecular thyroxine. The cumulative number of test animals that had reached the four-legged stage at defined points in time was smaller in the group treated with homeopathically prepared thyroxine at most of the points in time. This was found independently by all three research teams involved. In contrast, this effect did not occur when the thyroxine solution had been exposed to the field of the early model microwave oven, or mobile phone. There was no difference between aqueous or alcoholic solutions were used, and there was, if any, only a small protective effect from aluminum foil. Airport X-ray and red light barcode scanning did not diminish the effect of the homeopathic solution.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Oct;96(4):270-2.
Atrial paroxysmal tachycardia in dogs and its management with homeopathic Digitalis--two case reports.
Varshney JP, Chaudhuri S.
Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India. jpvarshney@gmail.com

Homeopathic Digitalis 6c was evaluated in two clinical cases of atrial paroxysmal tachycardia in dogs. Tachycardias are common cardiac problems in dogs, and atrial paroxysmal tachycardia is a serious cardiac arrhythmia that may lead to syncope. Both adult dogs (Labrador and German Shepherd) were treated with Digitalis 6c, 4 drops orally four times daily for 7 days. Following treatment with Digitalis 6c heart rate stabilised and synchronized atrial and ventricular electrical activity was restored in 7 days.

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2007, 7:7
Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: A comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting
Max Haidvogl* 1  , David S Riley* 2  , Marianne Heger* ^ 9 ,3 , Sara Brien* 4  , Miek Jong5  , Michael Fischer* 6  , George T Lewith* 4  , Gerard Jansen* 7   and André E Thurneysen* 8 
1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Homeopathy, Graz, Austria
2University of New Mexico School of Medicine and Integrative Medicine Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
3HomInt, Karlsruhe, Germany
4Complementary Medicine Research Unit; Primary Medical Care, University of Southhampton, Southhampton, UK
5VSM Geneesmiddelen, Alkmaar, The Netherlands
6ClinResearch GmbH, Cologne, Germany
7Tilburg, The Netherlands
8Institute for Complementary Medicine (KIKOM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
9passed away in 2005

Complete  electronic version at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/7

BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of homeopathy compared to conventional treatment in acute respiratory and ear complaints in a primary care setting.
METHODS: The study was designed as an international, multi-centre, comparative cohort study of non-randomised design. Patients, presenting themselves with at least one chief complaint: acute (¥ 7 days) runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, sinus pain or cough, were recruited at 57 primary care practices in Austria (8), Germany (8), the Netherlands (7), Russia (6), Spain (6), Ukraine (4), United Kingdom (10) and the USA (8) and given either homeopathic or conventional treatment. Therapy outcome was measured by using the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' in each treatment group. The primary outcome criterion was the response rate after 14 days of therapy.
RESULTS: Data of 1,577 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set of which 857 received homeopathic (H) and 720 conventional (C) treatment. The majority of patients in both groups reported their outcome after 14 days of treatment as complete recovery or major improvement (H: 86.9%; C: 86.0%; p = 0.0003 for non-inferiority testing). In the per-protocol set (H: 576 and C: 540 patients) similar results were obtained (H: 87.7%; C: 86.9%; p = 0.0019). Further subgroup analysis of the full analysis set showed no differences of response rates after 14 days in children (H: 88.5%; C: 84.5%) and adults (H: 85.6%; C: 86.6%). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of the primary outcome criterion was 1.40 (0.89–2.22) in children and 0.92 (0.63–1.34) in adults. Adjustments for demographic differences at baseline did not significantly alter the OR. The response rates after 7 and 28 days also showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. However, onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster upon homeopathic treatment both in children (p = 0.0488) and adults (p = 0.0001). Adverse drug reactions occurred more frequently in adults of the conventional group than in the homeopathic group (C: 7.6%; H: 3.1%, p = 0.0032), whereas in children the occurrence of adverse drug reactions was not significantly different (H: 2.0%; C: 2.4%, p = 0.7838).
CONCLUSION: In primary care, homeopathic treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints was not inferior to conventional treatment.

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Sudhoffs Arch. 2007;91(1):38-72.
[In Process Citation][Article in German]
Schmidt JM.
Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Lessingstrasse 2, D-80336 Munchen.

As a paradigmatic case study of the origin, spread, and development of medical systems, this paper investigates the 200-years history of homeopathy from different perspectives of medical history\. On the basis of new research on Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), first, a concise and critical overview on the principles, explanations, and implications of his doctrine is presented\. The historical, conceptual, and social background of the founder of homeopathy is then elaborated in terms of history of medicine, science, philosophy, sociology, culture, and ideas, as well as theory of science, theory of communication, and sociology of science\. The process of the world wide spread of homeopathy is examined from different points of view, ranging from history of heroes, institutions, professionalisation, politics, economics, religion, and organisations to history of patients, perception, and semiotics\. Finally, a comparative approach to the different development and status of homeopathy in different countries results in the extraction of a set of crucial variables, such as charismatic personage, influential patronage, economic sponsorship, political protection, media support, and patients' demand, which might explane a major part of these differences\. Eventually, the notorious splits of homeopathy's doctrine suggest the idea that--in analogy to theory of evolution--a variety of concurrent strains (rather than one monolithic block) of a doctrine may prove to be a kind of advantage for survival\. In conclusion, acceptance and relevance of medical systems are determined by many factors\. Since external ones are usually outweighing internal ones, medical history may offer a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of their spread and development than clinical trials and scientific objection alone.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):113-9. 
Hypothesis: do homeopathic medicines exert their action in humans and animals via the vomeronasal system?
McGuigan M.
moiramcguigan@aol.com

There is significant debate on the nature of the active therapeutic ingredient in homeopathic medicines and whether the effect of homeopathic medicines is exerted locally. This paper accepts that there is an active therapeutic ingredient in homeopathic medicines that acts pharmacologically in the body and proposes a possible receptor site. The vomeronasal organ (Jacobson's organ) is the receptor site for the detection of non-odorant molecules, eg pheromones, in reptiles, amphibians and mammals. The organ forms the main part of a chemoreceptor system known as the vomeronasal system. This paper proposes that it is this system that constitutes the receptor for homeopathic medicines in both animal and human subjects.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):95-101. 
In vivo study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Rhus toxicodendron.
dos Santos AL, Perazzo FF, Cardoso LG, Carvalho JC.
Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude de Sao Paulo, R. Bartolomeu de Gusmao, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: Homeopathic Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus tox) is used in various inflammatory conditions. We screened its effect compared to succussed ethanol controls and appropriate active controls.
METHOD: We initially experimented with Rhus tox 6, 12, 30 and 200 cH, using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The 6 cH dilution appeared most effective and was used in subsequent assays. We used pre-treatment and single treatment regimes in Wistar rats, and mice.
RESULTS: We found significant reductions compared to control in carrageenan-induced paw oedema, vascular permeability, writhing induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid and stress induced gastric lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: Rhus tox in homeopathic dilution appears to interfere with inflammatory processes involving histamine, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):90-4. 
Clinical management of babesiosis in dogs with homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200C.
Chaudhuri S, Varshney JP.
Clinical Diagnosis laboratory, Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122 UP, India. drshubhamitra@gmail.com

Homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200C was evaluated in 13 clinical cases of babesiosis in dogs, compared with another 20 clinical cases treated with diminazine\. Babesiosis is an important tropical tick-borne haemoprotozoan disease in dogs clinically manifested by anorexia, dehydration, temperature, dullness/depression, diarrhoea/constipation, pale mucosa, hepatomegaly, vomiting/nausea, splenomegaly, distended abdomen/ascites, yellow coloured urine, emaciation/weight loss, and occular discharge\. The diagnosis of babesiosis was based on cytological evidence of Babesia gibsoni in freshly prepared blood smears\. The dogs were treated with oral C\. horridus 200C, 4 pills four times daily for 14 days (n=13) or diminazine aceturate 5 mg/kg single intramuscularly dose (n=20)\. All the dogs were administered 5% Dextrose normal saline at 60 ml/kg intravenously for 4 days\. Initial clinical scores were similar in both groups and showed similar progressive improvement with the two treatments over 14 days\. Parasitaemia also improved in both groups, but haematological values showed no change\. No untoward reactions were observed\. It appears that C\. horridus is as effective in causing clinical recovery in moderate cases of canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni as the standard drug diminazine\. Large scale randomized trials are indicated for more conclusive results.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Apr;96(2):87-9. 
Patients treated by homeopaths registered with the Society of Homeopaths: a pilot study.
Relton C, Chatfield K, Partington H, Foulkes L.
HSR, Sheffield School for Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DA, UK. c.relton@sheffield.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: There is little information on the types of symptoms for which patients request homeopathic treatment from Society of Homeopaths (SoH) homeopaths in the UK.
OBJECTIVES: A preliminary study to gain information about characteristics of patients requesting treatment from SoH professional (non-medically qualified) homeopaths--including symptoms and general well-being.
RESULTS: 37 homeopaths returned data on 482 patients covering 1419 consultations over a 2 year period. Patients were mostly female and predominantly aged 40-59.
CONCLUSIONS: As well as obtaining preliminary data about these patients, this study has also resulted in greater knowledge of audit and research methods in the profession. The results of this preliminary descriptive study will inform a future, larger prospective controlled observational study.

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Complement Ther Med. 2007 Jun;15(2):115-20. Epub 2006 Nov 29.
Effect of homeopathic treatment of 60 Japanese patients with chronic skin disease.
.Itamura R.
Department of Dermatology, Obitsu Sankei Hospital, 1-4 Namikinishi-machi, Kawagoe-city, Saitama-ken 350-0025, Japan.

BACKGROUND:
Many individuals who appear to suffer from incurable chronic skin disease use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Homeopathy has recently increased in popularity among patients with skin disease. The effects of homeopathic treatment have yet to be fully investigated in patients for whom conventional dermatological treatment is not sufficiently effective.
OBJECTIVES: To describe patient-reported and clinically observed effects of individualized homeopathic treatment of chronic skin disease.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The effectiveness of individualized homeopathic treatment was measured using the patients' own assessments of seven elements (overall impression, improvement of skin condition, reduction of itchiness, reduction of sleep disturbance, satisfaction in daily life, fulfillment at work and satisfaction in human relations) using a nine-point scale similar to the Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Scale (GHHOS). Sixty patients with chronic skin disease were included in the study: atopic dermatitis (AD) (n=25), eczema other than AD (n=20), severe acne (n=6), chronic urticaria (n=6), psoriasis vulgaris (n=2) and alopecia universalis (n=1). These patients received individualized homeopathic treatments in addition to conventional dermatological treatments for a period of from 3 months to 2 years 7 months.
RESULTS: Six patients reported a score of 4 (complete recovery), 23 patients a score of 3 (75% improvement), 24 patients a score of 2 (50% improvement) and 7 patients a score of 1 (25% improvement). A total of 88.3% of patients reported over 50% improvement. Around one-half the patients with AD and eczema reported greater satisfaction in daily life, greater fulfillment at work and greater satisfaction in human relations. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological, physical and psychosomatic symptoms and effects of chronic skin diseases are inextricable. Individualized homeopathic treatment can provoke a good response in patients with chronic skin disease; therefore, the holistic approach used in homeopathy may be a useful strategy alongside conventional treatment.

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Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jan-Mar;8(1):98-102.
Inhibition of chemically induced carcinogenesis by drugs used in homeopathic medicine.
Kumar KH, Sunila ES, Kuttan G, Preethi KC, Venugopal CN, Kuttan R.
Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala State, India. 680555. amalaresearch@rediffmail.com.

Homeopathy is considered as one modality for cancer therapy. However, there are only very few clinical reports on the activity of the drugs, as well as in experimental animals. Presently we have evaluated the inhibitory effects of potentized homeopathic preparations against N'-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats as well as 3-methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in mice. We have used Ruta, Hydrastis, Lycopodium and Thuja, which are commonly employed in homeopathy for treating cancer. Administration of NDEA in rats resulted in tumor induction in the liver and elevated marker enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in the serum and in liver. Concomitant administration of homeopathic drugs retarded the tumor growth and significantly reduced the elevated marker enzymes level as revealed by morphological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Out of the four drugs studied, Ruta 200c showed maximum inhibition of liver tumor development. Ruta 200c and phosphorus 1M were found to reduce the incidence of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas and also increase the life span of mice harboring the tumours. These studies demonstrate that homeopathic drugs, at ultra low doses, may be able to decrease tumor induction by carcinogen administration. At present we do not know the mechanisms of action of these drugs useful against carcinogenesis.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):49-51
Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.
Lobreiro J.
Millenium Farm, Maracaju, MS, Brazil. thimoteolobreiro@uol.com.br

Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):46-8.
Clinical management of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs with homeopathic Belladonna 200C: a case series.
Varshney JP.
Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India. dr_jpvarshney@rediffmail.com

Epilepsy is an important neurological disorder in dogs. Belladonna 200C was evaluated in 10 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. During the seizure phase, 3-4 drops of Belladonna 200C were administered orally at 15 min intervals until considerable reduction in seizure activity, then four times daily. Four dogs with head shaking syndrome in addition to seizures were given Cocculus 6C, 3-4 drops orally weekly for 3 months in addition. Numbers of fits reduced to 2-3 during first 2 weeks post-therapy and then became occasional in next 2 weeks. With continuation of Belladonna therapy, no fits were observed during 2-7 months follow-up. In two cases epileptic fits reappeared within 15-25 days of cessation of therapy. Belladonna therapy was resumed and seizure control was again achieved. Owners were advised to continue the therapy at least twice daily until there were no fits for 2-3 months. Liver specific enzymes were monitored, no abnormalities were observed.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):22-6.
The use of homeopathic combination remedy for dengue fever symptoms: a pilot RCT in Honduras.
Jacobs J, Fernandez EA, Merizalde B, Avila-Montes GA, Crothers D.
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of a homeopathic combination medication for dengue fever was carried out in municipal health clinics in Honduras. Sixty patients who met the case definition of dengue (fever plus two ancillary symptoms) were randomized to receive the homeopathic medication or placebo for 1 week, along with standard conventional analgesic treatment for dengue. The results showed no difference in outcomes between the two groups, including the number of days of fever and pain as well as analgesic use and complication rates. Only three subjects had laboratory confirmed dengue. An interesting sinusoidal curve in reported pain scores was seen in the verum group that might suggest a homeopathic aggravation or a proving. The small sample size makes conclusions difficult, but the results of this study do not suggest that this combination homeopathic remedy is effective for the symptoms that are characteristic of dengue fever.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):17-21.
Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomised placebo control trial.
Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A.
ENT Department, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of Homeopathic Arnica in reducing the morbidity following tonsillectomy.
METHODS: Randomised double blind, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. 190 patients over the age of 18 undergoing tonsillectomy were randomised into intervention and control groups receiving either Arnica 30c or identical placebo, 2 tablets 6 times in the first post-operative day and then 2 tablets twice a day for the next 7 days. The primary outcome measure was the change in pain scores (visual analogue scale) recorded by the patient on a questionnaire over 14 days post-operatively; Secondary outcome measures were: analgesia consumption, visits to the GP or hospital, antibiotic usage, the day on which their swallowing returned to normal and the day on which they returned to work.
RESULTS: 111 (58.4%) completed questionnaires were available for analysis. The Arnica group had a significantly larger drop in pain score from day 1 to day 14 (28.3) compared to the placebo group (23.8) with p < 0.05. The two groups did not differ significantly on analgesic consumption or any of the other secondary outcome measures (number of post-operative visits to GP, use of antibiotics and secondary haemorrhage readmissions). CONCLUSION: The results of this trial suggest that Arnica montana given after tonsillectomy provides a small, but statistically significant, decrease in pain scores compared to placebo.

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Mar;4(1):7-16. Epub 2006 Sep 14.
Journeys in the country of the blind: entanglement theory and the effects of blinding on trials of homeopathy and homeopathic provings.
Milgrom LR.
Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ, UK.

The idea of quantum entanglement is borrowed from physics and developed into an algebraic argument to explain how double-blinding randomized controlled trials could lead to failure to provide unequivocal evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, and inability to distinguish proving and placebo groups in homeopathic pathogenic trials. By analogy with the famous double-slit experiment of quantum physics, and more modern notions of quantum information processing, these failings are understood as blinding causing information loss resulting from a kind of quantum superposition between the remedy and placebo.

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Complement Ther Med. 2006 Dec;14(4):237-46. Epub 2006 Oct 13.
Homeopathic arnica therapy in patients receiving knee surgery: results of three randomised double-blind trials.
Brinkhaus B, Wilkens JM, Ludtke R, Hunger J, Witt CM, Willich SN.
Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, Charite University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effectiveness of homeopathic Arnica montana on postoperative swelling and pain after arthroscopy (ART), artificial knee joint implantation (AKJ), and cruciate ligament reconstruction (CLR).
DESIGN: Three randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, sequential clinical trials.
SETTING: Single primary care unit specialised in arthroscopic knee surgery.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients suffering from a knee disease that necessitated arthroscopic surgery.
INTERVENTIONS: Prior to surgery, patients were given 1 x 5 globules of the homeopathic dilution 30x (a homeopathic dilution of 1:10(30)) of arnica or placebo. Following surgery, 3 x 5 globules were administered daily.
PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome parameter was difference in knee circumference, defined as the ratio of circumference on day 1 (ART) or day 2 (CLR and AKJ) after surgery to baseline circumference.
RESULTS: A total of 227 patients were enrolled in the ART (33% female, mean age 43.2 years;), 35 in the AKJ (71% female, 67.0 years), and 57 in the CLR trial (26% female; 33.4 years). The percentage of change in knee circumference was similar between the treatment groups for ART (group difference Delta=-0.25%, 95% CI: -0.85 to 0.41, p=0.204) and AKJ (Delta=-1.68%, -4.24 to 0.77, p=0.184) and showed homeopathic arnica to have a beneficial effect compared to placebo in CLR (Delta=-1.80%, -3.30 to -0.30, p=0.019).
CONCLUSIONS: In all three trials, patients receiving homeopathic arnica showed a trend towards less postoperative swelling compared to patients receiving placebo. However, a significant difference in favour of homeopathic arnica was only found in the CLR trial.

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BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Jan 17;7(1):1 [Epub ahead of print]
Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies.
Conforti A,
Bellavite P, Bertani S, Chiarotti F, Menniti-Ippolito F, Raschetti R.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: One of the cardinal principles of homeopathy is the "law of similarities", according to which patients can be treated by administering substances which, when tested in healthy subjects, cause symptoms that are similar to those presented by the patients themselves. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of pre-clinical (in vitro and animal) studies aimed at evaluating the pharmacological activity or efficacy of some homeopathic remedies under potentially reproducible conditions. However, in addition to some contradictory results, these studies have also highlighted a series of methodological difficulties. The present study was designed to explore the possibility to test in a controlled way the effects of homeopathic remedies on two known experimental models of acute inflammation in the rat. To this aim, the study considered six different remedies indicated by homeopathic practice for this type of symptom in two experimental edema models (carrageenan- and autologous blood-induced edema), using two treatment administration routes (sub-plantar injection and oral administration).
METHODS: In a first phase, the different remedies were tested in the four experimental conditions, following a single-blind (measurement) procedure. In a second phase, some of the remedies (in the same and in different dilutions) were tested by oral administration in the carrageenan-induced edema, under double-blind (treatment administration and measurement) and fully randomized conditions. Seven-hundred-twenty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 170-180 g were used. Six homeopathic remedies (Arnica montana D4, Apis mellifica D4, D30, Atropa belladonna D4, Hamamelis virginiana D4, Lachesis D6, D30, Phosphorus D6, D30), saline and indomethacin were tested. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after edema induction. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student t test.
RESULTS: In the first phase of experiments, some statistically significant effects of homeopathic remedies (Apis, Lachesis and Phosporus) were observed (the reduction in paw volume increase ranging from 10% to 28% at different times since edema induction). In the second phase of experiments, the effects of homeopathic remedies were not confirmed. On the contrary, the unblinded standard allopathic drug indomethacin exhibited its anti-inflammatory effect in both experimental phases (the reduction in paw volume increase ranging from 14% to 40% in the first phase, and from 18% to 38% in the second phase of experiments).
CONCLUSIONS: The discrepancies between single-blind and double-blind methods in animal pharmacological research are noteworthy and should be better investigated, also in non-homeopathic research.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):4-16.
A systematic review of the quality of homeopathic pathogenetic trials published from 1945 to 1995.
Dantas F,
Fisher P, Walach H, Wieland F, Rastogi DP, Teixeira H, Koster D, Jansen JP, Eizayaga J, Alvarez ME, Marim M, Belon P, Weckx LL.
Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: The quality of information gathered from homeopathic pathogenetic trials (HPTs), also known as 'provings', is fundamental to homeopathy. We systematically reviewed HPTs published in six languages (English, German, Spanish, French, Portuguese and Dutch) from 1945 to 1995, to assess their quality in terms of the validity of the information they provide.
METHODS: The literature was comprehensively searched, only published reports of HPTs were included. Information was extracted by two reviewers per trial using a form with 87 items. Information on: medicines, volunteers, ethical aspects, blinding, randomization, use of placebo, adverse effects, assessments, presentation of data and number of claimed findings were recorded. Methodological quality was assessed by an index including indicators of internal and external validity, personal judgement and comments of reviewers for each study.
RESULTS: 156 HPTs on 143 medicines, involving 2815 volunteers, produced 20,538 pathogenetic effects (median 6.5 per volunteer). There was wide variation in methods and results. Sample size (median 15, range 1-103) and trial duration (mean 34 days) were very variable. Most studies had design flaws, particularly absence of proper randomization, blinding, placebo control and criteria for analysis of outcomes. Mean methodological score was 5.6 (range 4-16). More symptoms were reported from HPTs of poor quality than from better ones. In 56% of trials volunteers took placebo. Pathogenetic effects were claimed in 98% of publications. On average about 84% of volunteers receiving active treatment developed symptoms. The quality of reports was in general poor, and much important information was not available.
CONCLUSIONS: The HPTs were generally of low methodological quality. There is a high incidence of pathogenetic effects in publications and volunteers but this could be attributable to design flaws. Homeopathic medicines, tested in HPTs, appear safe. The central question of whether homeopathic medicines in high dilutions can provoke effects in healthy volunteers has not yet been definitively answered, because of methodological weaknesses of the reports. Improvement of the method and reporting of results of HPTs are required.
REFERENCES: References to all included RCTs are available on-line.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):27-34.
Outcomes from homeopathic prescribing in veterinary practice: a prospective, research-targeted, pilot study.
Mathie RT,
Hansen L, Elliott MF, Hoare J.
Faculty of Homeopathy and British Homeopathic Association, Hahnemann House, 29 Park Street West, Luton LU1 3BE, UK.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Targeted research development in veterinary homeopathy is properly informed by the systematic collection and analysis of relevant clinical data obtained by its practitioners. We organised a pilot data collection study, in which 8 Faculty of Homeopathy veterinarians collected practice-based clinical and outcomes data over a 6-month period.
METHODS: A specifically designed Excel spreadsheet enabled recording of consecutive clinical appointments under the following headings: date; identity of patient and owner (anonymised); age, sex and species of patient; medical condition/complaint treated; whether confirmed diagnosis, chronic or acute, new or follow-up case; owner-assessed outcome (7-point Likert scale: -3 to +3) compared with first appointment; homeopathic medicine/s prescribed; other medication/s for the condition/complaint. Spreadsheets were submitted monthly by e-mail to the project organisers for data checking, synthesis and analysis.
RESULTS: Practitioners submitted data regularly and punctually, and most data cells were completed. 767 individual patients were treated (547 dogs, 155 cats, 50 horses, 5 rabbits, 4 guinea-pigs, 2 birds, 2 goats, 1 cow, and 1 tortoise). Outcome from two or more homeopathic appointments per patient condition was obtained in 539 cases (79.8% showing improvement, 6.1% deterioration, 11.7% no change; outcome not recorded in 2.4% of follow-ups). Strongly positive outcomes (scores of +2 or +3) were achieved in: arthritis and epilepsy in dogs and, in smaller numbers, in atopic dermatitis, gingivitis and hyperthyroidism in cats.
CONCLUSIONS: Systematic recording of data by veterinarians in clinical practice is feasible and capable of informing future research in veterinary homeopathy. A refined version of the spreadsheet can be used in larger-scale research-targeted veterinary data collection.

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Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):35-41.
Randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in hyperactive children: treatment procedure leads to an unconventional study design Experience with open-label homeopathic treatment preceding the Swiss ADHD placebo controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial.
Frei H,
Everts R, von Ammon K, Kaufmann F, Walther D, Schmitz SF, Collenberg M, Steinlin M, Lim C, Thurneysen A. Swiss Association of Homeopathic Physicians, Lucerne, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with homeopathy is difficult. The Swiss randomised, placebo controlled, cross-over trial in ADHD patients (Swiss ADHD trial) was designed with an open-label screening phase prior to the randomised controlled phase. During the screening phase, the response of each child to successive homeopathic medications was observed until the optimal medication was identified. Only children who reached a predefined level of improvement participated in the randomised, cross-over phase. Although the randomised phase revealed a significant beneficial effect of homeopathy, the cross-over caused a strong carryover effect diminishing the apparent difference between placebo and verum treatment.
METHODS: This retrospective analysis explores the screening phase data with respect to the risk of failure to demonstrate a specific effect of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with randomisation at the start of the treatment.
RESULTS: During the screening phase, 84% (70/83) of the children responded to treatment and reached eligibility for the randomised trial after a median time of 5 months (range 1-18), with a median of 3 different medications (range 1-9). Thirteen children (16%) did not reach eligibility. Five months after treatment start, the difference in Conners Global Index (CGI) rating between responders and non-responders became highly significant (p=0.0006). Improvement in CGI was much greater following the identification of the optimal medication than in the preceding suboptimal treatment period (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Because of the necessity of identifying an optimal medication before response to treatment can be expected, randomisation at the start of treatment in an RCT of homeopathy in ADHD children has a high risk of failure to demonstrate a specific treatment effect, if the observation time is shorter than 12 months.

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Forsch Komplementarmed. 2006 Dec;13(6):372-5. Epub 2006 Dec 21.
[Homeopathy in spontaneous bacterial ascites.][Article in German]
Teut M.

The case of a 44-year-old patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by E. coli is described and discussed. The patient with hypalbuminemia, ascites, a medical history of chronic pancreatitis, chronic alcohol abuse and a duodenopancreatectomy 6 months before showed a very slow response to conventional treatment but a good response to homeopathic therapy with Arsenicum album C200 and Pulsatilla C200. The discussion focuses on the methodology of single case evaluations according to cognition based medicine.

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Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Dec;3(4):397-409. Epub 2006 Jul 31.
Immunology and homeopathy. 4. Clinical studies-part 2.
Bellavite P, Ortolani R, Pontarollo F, Piasere V, Benato G, Conforti A.

The clinical studies on the effectiveness of homeopathy in respiratory allergy (18 randomized trials and 9 observational studies) are described. The literature of common immunologic disorders including also upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and otorhinolaryngology (reported in part 1), is evaluated and discussed. Most of initial evidence-based research was addressed to the question of whether homeopathic high dilutions are placebos or possess specific effects, but this question has been often equivocal and is still a matter of debate. The evidence demonstrates that in some conditions homeopathy shows significant promise, e.g. Galphimia glauca (low dilutions/potencies) in allergic oculorhinitis, classical individualized homeopathy in otitis and possibly in asthma and allergic complaints, and a few low-potency homeopathic complexes in sinusitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. A general weakness of evidence derives from lack of independent confirmation of reported trials and from presence of conflicting results, as in case of homeopathic immunotherapy and of classical homeopathy for URTI. The suitable methods to evaluate homeopathy effectiveness, without altering the setting of cure, are also analyzed

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Pesqui Odontol Bras. 2006 Sep;20(3):196-201.
Comparative therapeutic use of Risedronate and Calcarea phosphorica - allopathy versus homeopathy - in bone repair in castrated rats.
Werkman C, Segnini Senra G, Rocha RF, Brandao AA.
Sao Paulo State University.

Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by progressive bone loss, has been the target of several studies in the past few years. It results in a much higher risk for fractures and might cause slower bone lesion healing. The aim of this work was to study the effects of Risedronate (allopathic medicine) and Calcarea phosphorica 6CH (homeopathic medicine) on the repair of bone lesions in male rats with osteoporosis induced by castration. Eighty-four three-month-old rats were used divided into four groups of twenty-one animals each. Three groups where castrated and one group was submitted to Sham surgery. One month later, cortical lesions were made in all animals' tibiae and, after one day, the different experimental treatments began according to the following groups: CR - castrated/Risedronate (1 mg/kg/day); CCp - castrated/Calcarea phosphorica 6CH (3 drops/day); CP - castrated/placebo and SP - Sham/placebo. The animals were sacrificed at seven, fourteen and twenty-eight days after the beginning of the treatments and had their tibiae removed. Digital radiographs of the tibiae were taken and analyzed in order to evaluate the optical density of the defect area. Then, they were decalcified and processed for histological and histomorphometrical analysis. The data were submitted to ANOVA, and to the Tukey and Dunnett tests (5%). The allopathic and homeopathic treatments led to different bone formation as regards remodeling and maturation aspects. Further research is necessary to access the resistance and quality of the newly formed bone
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Forsch Komplementarmed. 2006 Jun;13(3):174-83. Epub 2006 Jun 26.
Towards a new model of the homeopathic process based on quantum field theory.
Milgrom LR.

Quantum theory's notions of non-locality and entanglement have previously informed attempts to model the therapeutic process. Of these, Weak Quantum Theory (WQT) and Patient- Practitioner-Remedy (PPR) entanglement are developing into mathematically- based models of homeopathy.
Objective: The present study attempted to identify fundamental concepts within quantum field theory (QFT) that could be used to broaden the scope of PPR entanglement models, prior to constructing a more rigorous mathematical treatment.
Methods: In QFT, particles and forces are considered as fully interacting relativistic quantum matter and force fields, respectively. These interactions are visualized graphically as spacetime Feynman diagrams. Further, these interacting field systems can have ground states with broken symmetry; the so-called Higgs field being responsible for this symmetry breaking. In the new model, patient, practitioner and remedy are imagined as fully interacting quantum-like fields; patients and practitioners in terms of quantum matter-type fields, and remedies and diseases as quantum interaction-type fields.
Results: Disease manifestation by the Vital Force (Vf) could be an event similar to spontaneous symmetry breaking in QFT: the curative remedy acting to restore the broken symmetry of the Vf field. Entanglement between patient, practitioner, and remedy might be representable as Feynman-like diagrams.
Conclusion: QFT demonstrates that quantum properties can be physical without being observable. Thus, an underlying similarity in discourse could exist between homeopathy and quantum theory which could be useful for modelling the homeopathic process. This preliminary investigation also suggested that key elements of previous quantum models of the homeopathic process, may become unified within this new QFT-type approach.
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J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jun;12(5):421-7.
Effect of low doses and high homeopathic potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes: an in vitro isopathic study.
Walchli C, Baumgartner S, Bastide M.
Institute for Complementary Medicine (KIKOM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. waelchli@hiscia.ch

OBJECTIVES: Biologic effects of high homeopathic potencies can be studied in cell cultures using cell lines or primary cells. We hypothesized that primary cells would be more apt to respond to high potencies than cell lines, especially cancer cell lines. We set out to investigate the effects of low doses and high homeopathic potencies of cadmium chloride, respectively, in an intoxication model with human primary lymphocytes compared to a human leukemia cell line (Jurkat).
DESIGN: Cells were pretreated with either low concentrations (nM-microM) or high potencies (pool 15-20c) of cadmium for 120 hours, following which they were exposed to a toxic treatment with a range of cadmium concentrations (8-80 microM) during 24 hours. Cell viability was eventually assessed by use of the MTS/PES assay. Controls included a vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) for the low concentrations of cadmium or water 15-20c for cadmium 15-20c. A total of 34 experiments were conducted, 23 with low concentrations and 11 with high potencies of cadmium. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance.
RESULTS: Pretreatment with low concentrations or high potencies of cadmium significantly increased cell viability in primary lymphocytes after toxic challenge, compared to control cells (mean effect +/- standard error = 19% +/- 0.9% for low concentrations respectively 8% +/- 0.6% for high potencies of cadmium; p < 0.001 in both cases). The pretreatment effect of low doses was significant also in cancerous lymphocytes (4% +/- 0.5%; p < 0.001), albeit weaker than in normal lymphocytes. However, high homeopathic potencies had no effect on cancerous lymphocytes (1% +/- 1.9%; p = 0.45).
CONCLUSIONS: High homeopathic potencies exhibit a biologic effect on cell cultures of normal primary lymphocytes. Cancerous lymphocytes (Jurkat), having lost the ability to respond to regulatory signals, seem to be fairly unresponsive to high homeopathic potencies.
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Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):362-72.
Effects of homeopathic preparations on human prostate cancer growth in cellular and animal models.
Maclaughlin BW, Gutsmuths B, Pretner E, Jonas WB, Ives J, Kulawardane DV, Amri H.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC.

The use of dietary supplements for various ailments enjoys unprecedented popularity. As part of this trend, Sabal serrulata (saw palmetto) constitutes the complementary treatment of choice with regard to prostate health. In homeopathy, Sabal serrulata is commonly prescribed for prostate problems ranging from benign prostatic hyperplasia to prostate cancer. The authors' work assessed the antiproliferative effects of homeopathic preparations of Sabal serrulata, Thuja occidentalis, and Conium maculatum, in vivo, on nude mouse xenografts, and in vitro, on PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer as well as MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Treatment with Sabal serrulata in vitro resulted in a 33% decrease of PC-3 cell proliferation at 72 hours and a 23% reduction of DU-145 cell proliferation at 24 hours (P<.01). The difference in reduction is likely due to the specific doubling time of each cell line. No effect was observed on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Thuja occidentalis and Conium maculatum did not have any effect on human prostate cancer cell proliferation. In vivo, prostate tumor xenograft size was significantly reduced in Sabal serrulata-treated mice compared to untreated controls (P=.012). No effect was observed on breast tumor growth. Our study clearly demonstrates a biologic response to homeopathic treatment as manifested by cell proliferation and tumor growth. This biologic effect was (i)significantly stronger to Sabal serrulata than to controls and (ii)specific to human prostate cancer. Sabal serrulata should thus be further investigated as a specific homeopathic remedy for prostate pathology.
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Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):356-61.
Homeopathic medicines do not alter growth and gene expression in prostate and breast cancer cells in vitro.
Thangapazham RL, Gaddipati JP, Rajeshkumar NV, Sharma A, Singh AK, Ives JA, Maheshwari RK, Jonas WB.
Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India.

Background: Homeopathy is an alternative medical system practiced in all parts of the world. Although several theories are proposed to explain the mechanisms of action, none are scientifically verified. In this study, the authors investigate the effect of selected homeopathic remedies often used to treat prostate and breast cancer.
Materials and METHODS: The authors investigated the effect of the homeopathic medicines Conium maculatum, Sabal serrulata, Thuja occidentalis, Asterias, Phytolacca, and Carcinosin on prostate and breast cancer cell (DU-145, LNCaP, MAT-LyLu, MDA-MB-231) growth and on gene expression that regulates apoptosis, using MTT and multiprobe ribonuclease protection assay.
RESULTS: None of the homeopathic remedies tested in different potencies produced significant inhibitory or growth-promoting activity in either prostate or breast cancer cells. Also, gene expression studies by ribonuclease protection assay produced no significant changes in mRNA levels of bax, bcl-2, bcl-x, caspase-1, caspase-2, caspase-3, Fas, or FasL after treatment with homeopathic medicines.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the highly diluted homeopathic remedies used by homeopathic practitioners for cancer show no measurable effects on cell growth or gene expression in vitro using currently available methodologies.
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Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):343-9.
Can homeopathic treatment slow prostate cancer growth?
Jonas WB, Gaddipati JP, Rajeshkumar NV, Sharma A, Thangapazham RL, Warren J, Singh AK, Ives JA, Olsen C, Mog SR, Maheshwari RK.
Samueli Institute, 1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 400, Alexandria, VA 22314.

Background: Homeopathy is a complementary medicine widely used around the world. Despite extensive use of homeopathy for cancer and other serious conditions with reported success, clinical and laboratory research has been equivocal, and no rigorous research has been done on cancer. In 1999, the US National Cancer Institute evaluated the effects of homeopathic treatment of cancer from a clinic in India and has released a request for protocols to conduct further research into this treatment. Therefore, the authors conducted a series of carefully controlled laboratory studies evaluating the effects of commonly used homeopathic remedies in cell and animal models of prostate cancer.
STUDY DESIGN: One hundred male Copenhagen rats were randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups after inoculation with prostate tumor cells.
METHODS: Prostate tumor cells DU-145, LNCaP, and MAT-LyLu were exposed to 5 homeopathic remedies. Male Copenhagen rats were injected with MAT-LyLu cells and exposed to the same homeopathic remedies for 5 weeks. In vitro outcomes included tumor cell viability and apoptosis gene expression. In vivo outcomes included tumor incidence, volume, weight, total mortality, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, apoptotic cell death (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated d-uridine triphosphate nick end labeling), and gene expression (rAPO-multiprobe).
RESULTS: There were no effects on cell viability or gene expression in 3 prostate cell lines with any remedies at any exposure time. There was a 23% reduction in tumor incidence (P < .0001), and for animals with tumors, there was a 38% reduction in tumor volume in homeopathy-treated animals versus controls (P < .02). At time of killing, experimental animals with tumors had a 13% lower average tumor weight (P < .05). Tumors in these treated animals showed a 19% increase in apoptotic cell death (P < .05) and reduced PCNA-positive cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that selected homeopathic remedies for the present study have no direct cellular anticancer effects but appear to significantly slow the progression of cancer and reduce cancer incidence and mortality in Copenhagen rats injected with MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells.
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Copyright Gaby Rottler, 2013

Last update:  February,  2013